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            新冠疫苗接種率過低,美國孕婦成“高危人群”

            新冠疫苗接種率過低,美國孕婦成“高危人群”

            Shira Stein, 彭博社 2021年08月30日
            截至8月14日,美國有76.2%的孕婦未接種新冠疫苗。

            德爾塔變種病毒在美國掀起新一波疫情。在此期間,許多健康的年輕孕婦因為感染新冠病毒,最終不得不住院接受呼吸機治療,有的甚至導致早產或者死亡。

            美國各地的醫生均報告了這種趨勢,主要集中在南方各州,但加利福尼亞州和華盛頓等地也有類似的情況。在之前的幾波疫情當中并未出現過這種情況。截至8月14日,美國有76.2%的孕婦未接種疫苗。

            《美國醫學會雜志—網絡公開版》(JAMA Network Open)本月發表的一篇論文稱,與未感染新冠病毒的孕婦相比,感染新冠病毒的孕婦死亡概率要高出15倍,需要接受插管治療的概率高出14倍,早產的概率高出22倍。華盛頓大學(University of Washington)的婦產科教授琳達???颂卣f:“我從未見過這類風險?!?/p>

            孕婦不愿意接種疫苗的情況非常普遍,因為輝瑞(Pfizer Inc.)-BioNTech、Moderna Inc.和強生(Johnson & Johnson)的新冠疫苗在臨床試驗時均排除了孕婦。針對孕婦接種疫苗的研究在2月啟動,目前有證據表明孕婦接種疫苗不會導致流產風險增加。美國衛生官員本月呼吁孕婦接種疫苗。

            ??颂胤Q:“現在我們已經掌握了大量更有說服力的數據,可以證明孕婦接種新冠疫苗的安全性,以及不接種疫苗可能面臨的危險性?!?/p>

            得克薩斯大學(University of Texas)奧斯丁?戴爾醫學院(Austin Dell Medical School)女性健康教授、該校女性健康學會(Women’s Health Institute)婦幼內科專家艾莉森?卡希爾表示,孕婦較低的新冠疫苗接種比例和德爾塔變種病毒“導致出現重癥和需住院治療的孕婦數量大幅增加,有些患者甚至需要在重癥監護室內接受治療。因新冠病毒出現的極端重癥的患者,讓我們的醫療服務變得異常忙碌?!?/p>

            對新冠疫苗的擔憂

            已經懷孕六個月的加布里埃爾?納迪-麥吉住在紐約市。她在懷孕三個月之后接種了第一劑疫苗。此前她曾經擔心疫苗會對胎兒造成傷害。但她表示,自己同時又擔心免疫系統受損的其他媽媽們感染病毒,“我不想在沒有接種疫苗的情況下去醫院。我真的非常害怕?!?/p>

            南佛羅里達大學(University of South Florida)婦產科醫學院(College of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology)的院長朱迪特?路易斯表示,絕大多數因為新冠肺炎住院治療的孕婦都沒有接種疫苗。

            路易斯說:“確實有一兩例接種新冠疫苗后的突破性感染病例最終需要接受住院治療,但她們不必使用呼吸機?!?/p>

            佛羅里達州婦產科醫生施薇塔?帕特爾指出,人們在懷孕期間通常會出現免疫系統變化,這增加了她們出現重癥新冠肺炎的風險,可能發生呼吸道問題。

            在《美國醫學會雜志》(JAMA)發表的論文中,加州大學歐文分校(University of California, Irvine)、醫生和一名統計學家分析了美國超過650家學術醫院的臨床數據庫,對比了自2020年3月1日至2021年2月28日期間分娩的新冠肺炎患者和非新冠肺炎患者。

            在感染新冠病毒和未感染新冠病毒的兩組產婦中,前者有5.2%被送入了重癥監護室,后者只有0.9%;前者有1.5%接受了插管治療,后者只有0.1%。此外,感染新冠病毒的孕婦未滿37周分娩的比例為16.4%,而未感染病毒的孕婦只有11.5%。

            卡希爾說:“有時候患者的病情非常嚴重,我們不得不讓孕婦提前分娩,而過早出生的新生兒將承擔早產的所有風險,可能患終生疾病甚至夭折?!?/p>

            免疫系統

            加州大學洛杉磯分校羅納德里根醫療中心(Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center)重癥監護室副主任尼達?卡迪爾表示,該醫院在新冠疫情期間收治了許多被送入重癥監護室的孕婦。該醫院是洛杉磯少數幾家為患者提供體外膜肺氧合(ECMO)治療的醫療設施。體外膜肺氧合可以繞過心肺,支持身體康復。

            隨著新冠肺炎病例增多,卡迪爾所在的重癥監護室收治了更多患有新冠肺炎的孕婦。

            南佛羅里達大學醫學院的路易斯表示,早產和接受體外膜肺氧合治療的患者要經歷“漫長的康復期”。

            對患有重癥新冠肺炎的孕婦的治療更有挑戰性。幫助呼吸困難患者的一種重要方法是將患者腹部朝下置于俯臥位??ǖ蠣柋硎荆骸氨M管能夠采用這種方式,但由于顯而易見的原因,這對孕晚期的患者更有難度?!?/p>

            卡迪爾稱,醫生還需要為懷孕的患者保證體內的含氧量,因為“我們盡量考慮到胎兒的氧氣輸送。胎兒對于氧合變化非常敏感?!?/p>

            早產

            卡迪爾治療的一名年輕女性的妊娠并不復雜,在懷孕之前是一名運動員。但這名女性被迫早產,“多次出現病?!?,住院幾個月后才得以出院回家。

            位于南卡羅來納州芒特普萊森特的東庫博醫療中心(East Cooper Medical Center)婦產科主任兼婦幼內科主任克里斯托弗?羅賓遜說:“我們無法預測哪些人會出現嚴重的新冠肺炎呼吸衰竭。唯一可以用來判斷哪些患者較為安全的指標似乎只有疫苗接種記錄?!?/p>

            來自紐約州杜魯門斯堡的莫莉?瓦德克?克勞斯在懷孕期間曾經考慮接種新冠疫苗,但當時還沒有疫苗安全性數據。她說:“我曾經糾結過是否要接種疫苗?!?/p>

            她的產科醫生稱這取決于她自己。在新冠疫苗安全性數據發布之后,瓦德克?克勞斯再次與產科醫生進行了討論,然后決定接種疫苗。四周后,她生下了一名健康的女嬰。

            瓦德克?克勞斯說:“我寧愿承擔疫苗接種帶來的流產風險,也不愿意死于新冠病毒,讓兩個孩子失去媽媽?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

            翻譯:劉進龍

            審校:汪皓

            德爾塔變種病毒在美國掀起新一波疫情。在此期間,許多健康的年輕孕婦因為感染新冠病毒,最終不得不住院接受呼吸機治療,有的甚至導致早產或者死亡。

            美國各地的醫生均報告了這種趨勢,主要集中在南方各州,但加利福尼亞州和華盛頓等地也有類似的情況。在之前的幾波疫情當中并未出現過這種情況。截至8月14日,美國有76.2%的孕婦未接種疫苗。

            《美國醫學會雜志—網絡公開版》(JAMA Network Open)本月發表的一篇論文稱,與未感染新冠病毒的孕婦相比,感染新冠病毒的孕婦死亡概率要高出15倍,需要接受插管治療的概率高出14倍,早產的概率高出22倍。華盛頓大學(University of Washington)的婦產科教授琳達???颂卣f:“我從未見過這類風險?!?/p>

            孕婦不愿意接種疫苗的情況非常普遍,因為輝瑞(Pfizer Inc.)-BioNTech、Moderna Inc.和強生(Johnson & Johnson)的新冠疫苗在臨床試驗時均排除了孕婦。針對孕婦接種疫苗的研究在2月啟動,目前有證據表明孕婦接種疫苗不會導致流產風險增加。美國衛生官員本月呼吁孕婦接種疫苗。

            ??颂胤Q:“現在我們已經掌握了大量更有說服力的數據,可以證明孕婦接種新冠疫苗的安全性,以及不接種疫苗可能面臨的危險性?!?/p>

            得克薩斯大學(University of Texas)奧斯丁?戴爾醫學院(Austin Dell Medical School)女性健康教授、該校女性健康學會(Women’s Health Institute)婦幼內科專家艾莉森?卡希爾表示,孕婦較低的新冠疫苗接種比例和德爾塔變種病毒“導致出現重癥和需住院治療的孕婦數量大幅增加,有些患者甚至需要在重癥監護室內接受治療。因新冠病毒出現的極端重癥的患者,讓我們的醫療服務變得異常忙碌?!?/p>

            對新冠疫苗的擔憂

            已經懷孕六個月的加布里埃爾?納迪-麥吉住在紐約市。她在懷孕三個月之后接種了第一劑疫苗。此前她曾經擔心疫苗會對胎兒造成傷害。但她表示,自己同時又擔心免疫系統受損的其他媽媽們感染病毒,“我不想在沒有接種疫苗的情況下去醫院。我真的非常害怕?!?/p>

            南佛羅里達大學(University of South Florida)婦產科醫學院(College of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology)的院長朱迪特?路易斯表示,絕大多數因為新冠肺炎住院治療的孕婦都沒有接種疫苗。

            路易斯說:“確實有一兩例接種新冠疫苗后的突破性感染病例最終需要接受住院治療,但她們不必使用呼吸機?!?/p>

            佛羅里達州婦產科醫生施薇塔?帕特爾指出,人們在懷孕期間通常會出現免疫系統變化,這增加了她們出現重癥新冠肺炎的風險,可能發生呼吸道問題。

            在《美國醫學會雜志》(JAMA)發表的論文中,加州大學歐文分校(University of California, Irvine)、醫生和一名統計學家分析了美國超過650家學術醫院的臨床數據庫,對比了自2020年3月1日至2021年2月28日期間分娩的新冠肺炎患者和非新冠肺炎患者。

            在感染新冠病毒和未感染新冠病毒的兩組產婦中,前者有5.2%被送入了重癥監護室,后者只有0.9%;前者有1.5%接受了插管治療,后者只有0.1%。此外,感染新冠病毒的孕婦未滿37周分娩的比例為16.4%,而未感染病毒的孕婦只有11.5%。

            卡希爾說:“有時候患者的病情非常嚴重,我們不得不讓孕婦提前分娩,而過早出生的新生兒將承擔早產的所有風險,可能患終生疾病甚至夭折?!?/p>

            免疫系統

            加州大學洛杉磯分校羅納德里根醫療中心(Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center)重癥監護室副主任尼達?卡迪爾表示,該醫院在新冠疫情期間收治了許多被送入重癥監護室的孕婦。該醫院是洛杉磯少數幾家為患者提供體外膜肺氧合(ECMO)治療的醫療設施。體外膜肺氧合可以繞過心肺,支持身體康復。

            隨著新冠肺炎病例增多,卡迪爾所在的重癥監護室收治了更多患有新冠肺炎的孕婦。

            南佛羅里達大學醫學院的路易斯表示,早產和接受體外膜肺氧合治療的患者要經歷“漫長的康復期”。

            對患有重癥新冠肺炎的孕婦的治療更有挑戰性。幫助呼吸困難患者的一種重要方法是將患者腹部朝下置于俯臥位??ǖ蠣柋硎荆骸氨M管能夠采用這種方式,但由于顯而易見的原因,這對孕晚期的患者更有難度?!?/p>

            卡迪爾稱,醫生還需要為懷孕的患者保證體內的含氧量,因為“我們盡量考慮到胎兒的氧氣輸送。胎兒對于氧合變化非常敏感?!?/p>

            早產

            卡迪爾治療的一名年輕女性的妊娠并不復雜,在懷孕之前是一名運動員。但這名女性被迫早產,“多次出現病?!?,住院幾個月后才得以出院回家。

            位于南卡羅來納州芒特普萊森特的東庫博醫療中心(East Cooper Medical Center)婦產科主任兼婦幼內科主任克里斯托弗?羅賓遜說:“我們無法預測哪些人會出現嚴重的新冠肺炎呼吸衰竭。唯一可以用來判斷哪些患者較為安全的指標似乎只有疫苗接種記錄?!?/p>

            來自紐約州杜魯門斯堡的莫莉?瓦德克?克勞斯在懷孕期間曾經考慮接種新冠疫苗,但當時還沒有疫苗安全性數據。她說:“我曾經糾結過是否要接種疫苗?!?/p>

            她的產科醫生稱這取決于她自己。在新冠疫苗安全性數據發布之后,瓦德克?克勞斯再次與產科醫生進行了討論,然后決定接種疫苗。四周后,她生下了一名健康的女嬰。

            瓦德克?克勞斯說:“我寧愿承擔疫苗接種帶來的流產風險,也不愿意死于新冠病毒,讓兩個孩子失去媽媽?!保ㄘ敻恢形木W)

            翻譯:劉進龍

            審校:汪皓

            More young and healthy pregnant people are ending up hospitalized on ventilators, delivering babies prematurely and sometimes dying from COVID-19 during the Delta-fueled spike in cases.

            Doctors across the country are reporting this trend, not seen in previous surges, largely in the South but also in states like California and Washington. As of Aug. 14, 76.2% of pregnant people were unvaccinated.

            Pregnant women with COVID-19 are 15 times more likely to die, 14 times more likely to need to be intubated, and 22 times more likely to have pre-term birth than those who are uninfected, according to a study published this month in JAMA Network Open. “I have not seen risks like this,” said Linda Eckert, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Washington.

            Reluctance to get the shots has been widespread among the pregnant population because they were excluded from clinical trials for the Pfizer Inc.-BioNTech SE, Moderna Inc., and Johnson & Johnson vaccines. Studies on pregnant women began in February, and evidence has shown no increased risk of miscarriage from the shots. U.S. health officials this month stepped up calls for pregnant people to get vaccinated.

            “Now we have a lot more compelling data about the safety of the vaccine in pregnancy and we have amazingly compelling data about how dangerous it is to get COVID when you’re pregnant,” Eckert said.

            The low numbers of pregnant people who are vaccinated and the Delta variant have “created this perfect storm of pregnant people getting extremely sick and being hospitalized, and even requiring care in the intensive care unit,” said Alison Cahill, a professor of women’s health at the University of Texas at Austin Dell Medical School and maternal-fetal medicine specialist at the school’s Women’s Health Institute. “We have very, very busy services with patients extremely sick from COVID.”

            Vaccine worries

            Gabriella Nardi-McGee, who is six months pregnant and lives in New York City, got her first vaccine dose after the end of the first trimester of her pregnancy after initially worrying about harming her unborn child. However, she also was concerned about exposing her immuno-compromised mother to the virus and “did not want to be in a hospital and not be vaccinated,” she said. “That really scared me.”

            Judette Louis, chair of the University of South Florida College of Medicine Obstetrics and Gynecology, said the vast majority of pregnant people getting hospitalized with COVID are unvaccinated.

            “We did have a couple of vaccine breakthroughs that did end up needing to be hospitalized, but they did not end up on the ventilator,” Louis said.

            People often undergo immune changes during pregnancy that can increase vulnerability to a severe type of COVID, potentially with respiratory issues, said Shweta Patel, an obstetrician and gynecologist in Florida.

            In the study published in JAMA, University of California, Irvine, doctors and a statistician analyzed a clinical database of more than 650 academic hospitals in the U.S. to compare patients who gave birth with or without COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and Feb. 28, 2021.

            Of those cases, 5.2% of those giving birth with COVID were admitted to the ICU, compared with 0.9% of women without the virus; 1.5% of those with COVID were intubated, compared with 0.1% of women without the virus. Additionally, 16.4% of women with COVID delivered at less than 37 weeks, compared with 11.5% of those without the virus.

            “Sometimes the illness can be significant enough such that we have to deliver folks early and when that happens, then that newborn baby who’s delivered extremely prematurely takes on all of the risks of a very preterm delivery that can be lifelong morbidities and even death,” Cahill said.

            Immune systems

            Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center in Los Angeles has seen a lot of pregnant people admitted to the ICU throughout the pandemic, said Nida Qadir, associate director of the hospital’s medical ICU. It is one of the few facilities in the Los Angeles area that can put patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), a machine that bypasses the heart and lungs to allow the body to heal.

            Now that there are more cases overall, there are even more pregnant COVID patients in her ICU.

            People who have to deliver early and end up on ECMO have a “long course to recovery,” said South Florida College’s Louis.

            Taking care of severely ill COVID-19 patients can be more challenging if they’re pregnant. One important way to help patients in respiratory distress involves putting someone on their belly, known as proning. “While we’re able to do it, it for obvious reasons becomes more difficult if somebody is further along in their pregnancy,” Qadir said.

            Doctors also need to keep oxygen levels higher for pregnant patients because “we are trying to keep in mind oxygen delivery to the fetus, which is very sensitive to changes in oxygenation,” Qadir said.

            Premature birth

            Qadir took care of one young woman who had an uncomplicated pregnancy and was athletic prior to getting COVID. The woman had to deliver her baby prematurely, “nearly died so many times,” and was in the hospital for months before she was able to go home.

            “We cannot predict who is going to have that severe COVID pneumonia respiratory failure outcome,” said Christopher Robinson, chair of obstetrics and gynecology and director of maternal fetal medicine at East Cooper Medical Center in Mount Pleasant, South Carolina. “The only thing that appears to be suggestive of who is safe and who is not is vaccination history.”

            When Molly Wadzeck Kraus from Trumansburg, New York was considering getting vaccinated while pregnant, safety data still wasn’t available. “I struggled with the decision of whether or not to do it,” she said.

            Her obstetrician said it was up to her. When data came out, Wadzeck Kraus discussed it again with her obstetrician and decided to get the vaccine. Four weeks ago, she gave birth to a healthy baby girl.

            “Even if there was a risk of miscarriage, I would’ve much rather risked that than risk me getting COVID and dying and leaving my two children I already have without a mom,” Wadzeck Kraus said.

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